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PhD Fellow (EXPIRED)

Department of law, philosophy and international studies, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences

Job category Graduate fellowship / Fixed term
AOS Open
AOC Open
Workload Full time
Vacancies 1
Location Lillehammer, Oppland, Norway
Start date Fall 2021
Job description

PhD Fellowship in War Ethics

Please note:

  • This position has a Scandinavian language requirement (i.e. the candidate must have command of either Swedish, Danish or Norwegian).
  • The position is salaried (NOK 491 200/year, which equals aproximately USD 57 000/year, plus benefits) for either 3 years (no teaching) or 4 years (25% teaching). See details below.

In the last decade, the Norwegian Armed Forces - like many other European Armed forces - have increasingly outsourced tasks and services to civilian contractors (logistics, maintenance, catering etc.). This new model of outsourcing is called the “total defense” model (“totalforsvarsmodellen” in Norwegian). It implies a significant restructuring of the defense sector, with wide ranging consequences for governance structure, legal rules and regulations.

The agreements between the Armed Forces and civilian contractors often entail that the contractors also will provide their services in wartime, which may weaken the distinction between civilians and combatants.  If a civilian lorry driver delivers arms directly to the frontline, he will be a direct participant in hostilities and hence a lawful target. Even if he does not participate directly in hostilities, the arms he is carrying will be a lawful target. If the lorry is attacked, the lorry driver would be considered proportional collateral damage.

The outsourcing of tasks to civilian contractors to support the Armed Forces raises a range of ethical and legal issues:

  • Is it morally justified to employ civilians in such tasks?
  • If it is justified, under what conditions? Which duties will the Armed Forces have towards its civilian contractors?
  • Do civilian citizens have good reasons, or duties, to take on such tasks?
  • What is the ethical justification for the distinction between civilians and combatants, and is this a relevant moral distinction? If so, what does its significance consist in?
  • Which actions amount to direct participation in hostilities? What is the ethical significance of the distinction between direct and indirect participation in hostilities? How can direct participation be demarcated in modern warfare without geographical frontlines?
  • Should domestic law be adjusted in order to regulate this practice of outsourcing tasks to civilian contractors, and if so how?
  • Should international law be adjusted in order to regulate this practice, and if so, how?
  • How was the total defense model developed, decided and implemented? Did the Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence and Parliament pay sufficient attention to the ethical, legal, logistic and security risks involved in this restructuring?

We seek a PhD- candidate who can develop and implement a PhD dissertation on one or more of these questions, or similar questions. The candidate will be affiliated with and receive supervision from the research group at INSEPP, as well as the Department of Law, Philosophy, and International Studies. At INSEPP there is expertise in innovation in the public and private service sector, and at the department of Law, Philosophy and International Studies, there is expertise in the ethics of war, as well as in domestic and international law. In addition, the candidate may collaborate with the research group in Crisis Management at Campus Rena.


  • Applicants must have a master’s degree in a philosophy, law or political science, 120 ECTS or equivalent, including a master's thesis of at least 30 ECTS (cf. NOKUT’s (the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education’s) requirements for admission to PhD-education at Norwegian universities). Applicants with a master’s degree from universities abroad, have to attach “Recognition of foreign higher education” from NOKUT. Instructions on how to get this master’s degree assessed and approved, are given by NOKUT, cf. https://www.nokut.no/en/services/recognition-of-foreign-higher-education/
  • Language proficiency: Oral and written English is required. In addition, it is required to have command of at least one Scandinavian language in order to carry out document analyses.
  • Ability to carry out independent research at an international level

About the position

Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (INN)The PhD programme Innovation in Services - Public and Private (INSEPP), invites candidates to apply for a 3-year PhD research fellowship in innovation studies. The position is intended for a PhD project about the ethical and/or legal issues that arise when the Armed Forces hire civilian contractors to perform tasks that traditionally have been performed by the Armed Forces themselves.

Depending on the department`s needs, and the candidate`s competence and desires, the position may be transformed into a four years position with 25% teaching duties at the Department of Law, Philosophy and International Studies. The purpose of the PhD research fellowship for the admitted candidate is to undergo a research training programme that leads to the successful completion of a doctoral degree. The selected applicant will be expected to complete the PhD programme in 2024/2025.

We offer

  • An academically stimulating work environment with engaged colleagues and a growing institution
  • Good welfare benefits
  • Good pension benefits, under the Norwegian Public Service Pension Funds
  • The position’s salary follows position code 1017 PhD candidate in the state's wage regulations, a pay grade of 54 (NOK 491 200,- p.a). If 4 years with 25 % teaching duties is agreed upon, 25 % will be remunerated according to the appropriate level for a teaching position, on the basis of an evaluation of relevant qualifications. For particularly qualified candidates, placement and salary can be agreed in position code 1378 PhD candidate.

How to apply

The application and all attachments are to be submitted electronically and should include the following:

  • Application letter (describing the applicant’s background and motivation)
  • Research proposal (3-5 pages, 12-point font, single-spaced)
  • Short writing sample (max 4000 words)
  • CV (summarizing education, positions and academic work)
  • Copies of higher education certificates

If you have any questions about uploading an attachment or other technical matters regarding the application, Jobbnorge customer service can be contacted. Contact information is provided as a link in the application form.

Relevant applications will be considered by an expert committee. CVs, copies of diplomas and certificates, documents/works to be considered must be submitted as electronic attachments or links to the application.

The most relevant applicants will be invited to an interview.

Requests for exemptions from the public applicant list must be clearly justified and stated via the electronic application form. Applicants will be contacted if INN University cannot comply with the request (cf. § 25 of the Freedom of Information Act).

The state workforce should, as far as possible, reflect the diversity of the population. It is therefore a personnel policy goal at INN University to achieve a balanced age and gender composition and to recruit people with an immigrant background. If necessary, the working conditions are adapted for persons with disabilities. If applicants declare in their CV that they have a disability, this information may be used for registration purposes in connection with the target employment numbers.

Contact information

For any questions, please contact Andreas Brekke Carlsson ([email protected]), Knut Olav Skarsaune ([email protected]) or Head of Department, Anstein Gregersen ([email protected]).

How to apply
Application type Online
Web address to apply https://www.jobbnorge.no/en/available-jobs/job/208...
Hard deadline August 12, 2021, 11:59pm CET
Web address for more information https://www.jobbnorge.no/en/available-jobs/job/208...
Contact name Andreas Brekke Carlsson
Contact email
Time created June 30, 2021, 8:32pm UTC
Scheduled expiry date August 12, 2021, 11:59pm CET
Expired on August 14, 2021, 12:46am CET
Last updated October 27, 2021, 3:00pm UTC
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This is a PhD fellowship which is most naturally filled over the summer.